Basic Line Following with cyber:bot
How many possible combinations of QTI sensor states exist from pattern? The values could range from 0b0000 (0) to 0b1111 (8+4+2+1=15) for a total of 16 different number combinations!
Is it likely that pattern would be 0b1001 where the two outside QTI sensors are seeing black? Not likely since they’re 1-½” apart and electrical tape is less than ¾” wide. Rather than check for every possible 16 cases, choose the ones which are most likely. This saves memory and creates a faster-running program. The example program has eight possibilities shown and described in the following 8 images.
0b1000, Sharp left turn
0b1100, Medium left turn
0b0100, Gentle left turn
0b0110, Straight ahead full speed
0b0010, Gentle right turn
0b0011, Medium right turn
0b0001, Sharp right turn
0b0000, Backup, turn, rotate, make a sound - or do the same command previously executed?
The cyber:bot Forward and Backward tutorial showed how the right motor must turn the opposite direction for the robot to go forward, using negative values. For example:
bot(18).servo_speed(75) # Full speed forward bot(19).servo_speed(-75)
Note that the example QTI_Follow_Line.py code uses all positive values. How is that possible? At the end of the program the wR values are made opposite, allowing the use of all positive numbers as arguments.
This makes it a little bit easier to come up with drive speed values in the example program. The values work well with a gentle, curvy line formed with electrical tape. The combinations of motor speeds you use will vary based on the line you create.
Example code is shown below.
# QTI_Follow_Line.py from cyberbot import * from qti import * from intbits import * wL = 0 wR = 0 bot(22).tone(500, 1000) while True: # Read QTI sensors pattern = qti(7, 4).read() # Display QTI sensors for x in range(0,4): z = bit.get(pattern, x) for y in range (0,5): display.set_pixel(x, y, z*9) # Calculate speeds to respond to detection patterns if pattern == 0b1000: wL = 10 wR = 100 elif pattern == 0b1100: wL = 30 wR = 100 elif pattern == 0b0100: wL = 60 wR = 100 elif pattern == 0b0110: wL = 100 wR = 100 elif pattern == 0b0010: wL = 100 wR = 60 elif pattern == 0b0011: wL = 100 wR = 30 elif pattern == 0b0001: wL = 100 wR = 10 elif pattern == 0b0000: bot(22).tone(500, 20) # Update wheel speeds bot(18).servo_speed(wL) bot(19).servo_speed(-wR)
High-speed Line Following with cyber:bot
If you are competing in a line following contest, you can speed up your cyber:bot two different ways.
- First, consider moving the power jumper from Vdd to Vin.
- Next, you could upgrade your cyber:bot with the Parallax Feedback 360° High Speed Servos.